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National Security, Democratization and the Menace of Ethnic Militias in Nigeria

Funso Adesola


There were high expectations that shortly after the prolonged military rule in Nigeria and the return to civil rule on May 29, 1999, peace, order and security of lives and properties, as well as adequate provision of infrastructural facilities would be ensured. However, these expectations have remained illusory. Massive repression of the civil society groups by successive military regimes and the failure of the Obasanjos government to meet the yearnings and aspirations of the people have made them resort to seeking solace in cultural and ethnic identities. This explains the emergence and activism of ethnic militias like Oodua Peoples Congress (OPC), Egbesu Boys of Africa, Ijaw Youth Movement, Movement for the Actualization of Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB), Arewa Peoples Congress (APC), Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND) and Front for Ijaw Survival and Hope (FISH), among others.

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West Africa Review. ISSN: 1525-4488 (online).
Editors: Adeleke Adeeko, Nkiru Nzegwu, and Olufemi Taiwo.

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