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The Swakopmund Protocol: A Philosophical Analysis of Africa’s Response to Intellectual Piracy

Nkiru Nzegwu


On August 9, 2010 in Swakopmund, Namibia, nine African nations namely, Botswana, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Mozambique, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe, signed a Protocol on the Protection of Traditional Knowledge and and Expressions of Folklore (hereinafter referred to as the Swakopmund Protocol) within the framework of the African Regional Intellectual Property Organization (ARIPO). The article analyzes Africa’s formal response to intellectual piracy of its traditional knowledge and creative expressions within intellectual property rights discourse, and in reference to the protocol’s potential impact on women.


Intellectual; Cultural; Piracy; Bio-Piracy; Rights; Traditional; Knowledge; Creative; Expressions

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West Africa Review. ISSN: 1525-4488 (online).
Editors: Adeleke Adeeko, Nkiru Nzegwu, and Olufemi Taiwo.

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